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HSC 2100: Citations, Citations,Citations

This LibGuide is the compliment to HSC 2100 as taught by Professor Kaleita.

In text Citation

In text citations use the author/date system for noting. 

Kaleita (2018) discovered that many of her students were dual-enrolled students. This is a narrative citation as the author is included in the sentence.


Dual enrolled students often are challenged by their first writing assignments (Kaleita, 2018). The author is not included as part of the sentence but the source is referenced. this is called parenthetical.

Once you have cited the author and year in parenthesis, you do not need to cite the year in the same paragraph of your paper. If the author and date are part of the narrative discussion you need not include the parenthesis.  In 2018, Kaleita discovered that many of her students.

Secondary sources

Name the primary source first by writing

Kaletia's research (as cited in Boone, 2018).


Two Authors

When you cite a source that has two authors you must cite both names every time you use the source. Use the conjunction and, not the ampersand as you would in the reference page.

According to Kaletia and Boone (2018)... Narrative

Students these days are attentive to their health (Kaleita & Boone). Include the ampersand in parenthetical.

Three or more Authors

Notate the first author and then use et al. in both parenthetical and narrative citations.   If it is the first reference within the paragraph you must include the year.

No Identified Author

Sometimes your source may come from a Website without an identified author. In this case, you would include the title in parenthesis followed by a comma  along with the date



These are some websites that you can use to help you correctly use in-text citations as well as construct your Reference Page.

Purdue OWL


American Psychological Association Style





Reference Page

The purpose of the Reference Page is to allow other readers, researchers, or instructors the opportunity to access the documents that you have used to write your paper. Use only the sources that appear in your paper.  Reference pages contain this format: Must be double spaced with a hanging ident.  The list must be alphabetized and contain the following elements: Author, year of publication, title and publishing data. Retrieval information should be included for electronic resources.

Arrange entries by the surname of the primary author. Careful, one exception to the rule may be for non-western countries where the author may list the first name in the position of the last name. If you have an author with multiple articles, use the dates to order the list. Alphabetize groups by the first full name of the group.

Please check the Purdue Website for complete information.